Dice (singular die or dice; from Old French dé; from Latin datum “something which is given or played”) are small throwable objects with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers. Dice are suitable as gambling devices for games like craps, and are also used in non-gambling tabletop games.

A traditional die is a rounded cube, with each of its six faces showing a different number of dots (pips) from 1 to 6. When thrown or rolled, the die comes to rest showing on its upper surface a random integer from one to six, each value being equally likely. A variety of similar devices are also described as dice; such specialized dice may have polyhedral or irregular shapes and may have faces marked with symbols instead of numbers. They may be used to produce results other than one through six. Loaded and crooked dice are designed to favor some results over others for purposes of cheating or amusement.

A dice tray or a dice box is a piece of gaming equipment, a tray used to contain thrown dice, for gambling or board games. One traditional form used in Flemish dice games is an octagonal shaped wooden tray, lined with fabric. A dice tray can be used to play games on its own or as an add-on for other board games, in particular to allow dice throws which do not interfere with other game pieces.
Dice have been used since before recorded history, and it is uncertain where they originated. The oldest known dice were excavated as part of a 5000-year-old backgammon set at the Burnt City, an archeological site in south-eastern Iran. Other excavations from ancient tombs in the Indus Valley civilization indicate a South Asian origin. Dicing is mentioned as an Indian game in the Rigveda, Atharvaveda and Buddha games list. It also plays a critical role in the great Hindu epic Mahabharata, where Yudhisthira plays a game of dice against the Kauravas for the northern kingdom of Hastinapura, which becomes the trigger for a war.[citation needed] There are several biblical references to “casting lots”, as in Psalm 22, indicating that dicing (or a related activity) was commonplace when the psalm was composed. Knucklebones was a skill game played by women and children; a derivative form had the four sides of the bone receive different values and count as modern dice.[citation needed] Gambling with two or three dice was a very popular form of amusement in Greece, especially with the upper classes, and a frequent accompaniment to symposia



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